Anal Fistula


What is Anal Fistula?

An abscess, an infected cavity in the anus, and a hole on the skin surrounding the anus are connected by a short tunnel called an anal fistula.

The external opening through which the body exhales waste is called the anus. Numerous tiny glands that produce mucus are located right inside the anus. These glands can occasionally become clogged and infected, which can result in an infection. These infections have a 50/50 chance of turning into fistulas.

An improper passageway or connection between two normally unconnected organs or veins is referred to as a fistula. They can appear anywhere, such as between the vagina and the rectum or between the intestine and the skin. The anus region is where fistulas are most frequently found.

Unpleasant symptoms from anal fistulas, such as stiffness and skin irritability, can occur and typically do not go away on their own.

In most cases, surgery is recommended.

Types Of Fistulas:

As we already know, anal fistulas are the most typical type. There are a number of different fistulas, though, that you should be aware of:

  1. Anal Fistulas/Perianal Fistulas: There are three different types of fistula development around the anus. 
  • Anorectal fistula is the medical term for a fistula that develops between the anal canal and the skin around the anal entrance. 
  • Rectovaginal or anovaginal fistula refers to a hole that forms between the rectum or anus and the vagina. 
  • A fistula between the vagina and colon can develop occasionally. The term for this is colovaginal fistula.
  1. Enteroenteric fistula: It is the term for a fistula that develops between two sections of the intestine. A fistula can occasionally form between the skin and the small intestine or the skin and the colon.
  2. Urinary tract: Fistulas can also develop between the uterus and the bladder. A hole may sometimes form between the urethra and the vagina as well as between the urinary bladder and the vagina.

Fistulas can be painful, disabling, and harmful to your body if they are not treated. Fistulas are associated to kidney failure, infection, and damage to the nerves.

What are the Symptoms of Fistulas?

The signs and symptoms of an anal fistula include:

The following are the symptoms of anal fistula:

  • Pain and swelling around the anus
  • Frequent anal infections
  • Bloody or foul-smelling drainage (pus) from an opening around the anus. 
  • The pain may decrease after the fistula drains.
  • Pain with bowel movements

To ensure that a fistula does not develop as a result of the infection, a person who has experienced these symptoms should visit Dr.Pradeep Tripathi who is the best fistula surgeon in thane.

Therefore, if you experience any of these symptoms, seek medical consultation from Dr. Pradeep Tripathi before assuming fistulas are to blame.

What causes a Fistula?

The formation of fistulas on the human body can have a variety of causes. As was earlier said, some may develop spontaneously, while others may be the result of a surgery or an injury.

Anal fistulas, the most typical type, can develop gradually over time. Sometimes, a fistula between the vagina and the intestine can develop which is also natural.

Fistulas are more prone to form close to the anus in people with gastrointestinal disorders such Chron’s disease, colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. After giving birth, women may also develop a fistula between the anus and the vagina.

Anal abscesses and clogged anal glands are the main causes of an anal fistula. The following other, far less frequent causes can result in an anal fistula:

  • Crohn’s disease (an inflammatory disease of the intestine) -Digestive System inflammation for long term.
  • Radiation (treatment for cancer)
  • Trauma
  • sexually transmissible conditions or HIV
  • Tuberculosis
  • Diverticulitis (a disease in which small pouches form in the large intestine and become inflamed) – infection of the small pouches that can stick out of the side of the large intestine (colon)
  • Cancer

What are the treatments for an anal fistula?

Anal fistulas are usually usually treated surgically. An expert in colon and rectal surgery performs. The aim of the procedure is to strike a compromise between closing the fistula and safeguarding the anal sphincter muscles, which could get injured and lead to incontinence.

A fistulotomy is used to treat fistulas in which the sphincter muscle is absent or only minimally involved. The skin and muscle covering the tunnel are ripped open during this treatment to change it from a tunnel to an open groove. As a result, the fistula tract can recover holistically.

The surgeon might have to insert a special drain called a seton, which is left in place for at least 6 weeks, in the event that the fistula is more complicated.

A second procedure is generally always carried out once a seton is implanted:

  • A fistulotomy
  • A trap door-like flap or chunk of tissue removed from the rectum during an advancement flap procedure, or
  • A lifting technique (the skin above the fistula is opened up, the sphincter muscles are spread, and the fistula is tied off).

Non-invasive Medical Treatment

  • Fibrin Glue – A particular type of medical adhesive used to close fistulas.
  • Plug  – The fistula is often filled with a collagen matrix.
  • Catheters -Catheters are frequently used on tiny fistulas to drain them and treat infection.

Surgeries to Treat Anal Fistula

  • Transabdominal Surgery – Through an incision in the abdominal wall, the fistula is accessible.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery– A tiny incision, cameras, and tiny tools are used in this minimally invasive procedure to close the fistula.

The majority of fistula surgeries are performed as outpatient procedures, allowing the patient to leave on the same day. After the surgery, patients with exceptionally wide or deep fistula tunnels might need to spend some time in the hospital. To get rid of fistulas completely, several surgeries are necessary.

To diagnose your fistula treatment and for further details, see our expert consultant who is the best fistula surgeon in Mumbai Dr. Pradeep Tripathi.

In Conclusion

A fistula can cause major disruption. Fistulas frequently become infected or start to bleed pus and blood if left untreated. If they are not treated right away, they might cause major health risks.

Seek immediate medical assistance if you have an unpleasant fistula and want it treated. Only the infection can be controlled by medication. Fistulotomy is the solution for a more effective fistula treatment. Although it is less invasive than major surgery, it will still be just as effective in curing the fistula.

Book an Appointment with Dr. Pradeep Tripathi for your fistula treatment or surgery. The best surgeon for fistula Treatment in Thane can be contacted on +91 91522 21666. 

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